Major Sources



Note: the sources listed here have not all been exhaustively searched. Many of the early Scottish anthologies listed are available online, especially at


ABC                            Armstrong, Isobel, Joseph Bristow and Cath Sharrock (eds), Nineteenth-Century Women Poets (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996).

Allan                          Allan, Thomas, Allan’s Illustrated Edition of Tyneside Songs and Readings, with Lives, Portraits, and Autographs of the Writers, revised edition (Newcastle upon Tyne: Thomas & George Allan, 1891).

Andrews                   Andrews, William, Modern Yorkshire Poets (Hull: A. Brown & Sons; London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co, 1885). [Note that the copy of Edwards, 7 in the NTU special collection is inscribed by Edwards ‘To William Andrews, with warm regards, dated September 1884’]

Ashraf (1975)            Ashraf, Mary (ed), Political Verse and Song from Britain and Ireland (East Berlin: Seven Seas Publishers, 1975).

Ashraf (1978)            Ashraf, Mary, Introduction to Working-Class Literature in Great Britain (East Berlin, 1978), two vols: Part I. Poetry.

Ashton & Roberts   Ashton, Owen and Roberts, Stephen, The Victorian Working Class Writer (London and New York: Mansell, 1999).

Backscheider           Backscheider, Paula R, Eighteenth-Century Women Poets and Their Poetry: Inventing Agency, Inventing Genre (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005).

Backscheider & Ingrassia Backscheider, Paula R. and Ingrassia, Catherine E. (eds), British Women Poets of the Long Eighteenth Century (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009).

Barrell & Bull            Barrell, John and Bull, John (eds), The Penguin Book of English Pastoral verse (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974).

Basker                       Basker, James G. (ed), Amazing Grace: An Anthology of Poems about Slavery 1660-1810 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2002).

Bissett                        Bisset, Alex. M. (ed), The Poets and Poetry of Linlithgowshire: An Anthology of the County (Paisley: J. and R. Parlane, 1896).

BL                               British Library.

Blunden                     Blunden, Edmund, Nature in English Literature (London: Hogarth Press, 1929)

Boos (1995)               Boos, Florence, ‘Cauld Engle-Cheek: Working-Class Women Poets in Victorian Scotland’, Victorian Poetry, 33, no. 1 (1995), 53-70.

Boos (1998)               Boos, Florence, ‘“We would know again the fields...”: The rural poetry of Elizabeth Campbell, Jane Stevenson, and Mary MacPherson’, Tulsa Studies in Women’s Writing, 1640-1867 (Autumn 1998), 25-47.

Boos (2001)               Boos, Florence, ‘Working-Class Women Poets and the Periodical Press: ‘Marie’, Janet Hamilton, and Fanny Forrester’, Victorian Poetry 39.2 (2001), 255-86.

Boos (2008)               Boos, Florence (ed), Working-Class Women Poets in Victorian Britain (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview press, 2008).

Borland                      Borland, R., Yarrow: Its Poets and Poetry, 2nd Edn (Galashiels: A. Walker & Son, 1908).

Brown                        Brown, Robert, Paisley Poets, with Brief Memoirs of Them, and Selections from Their Poetry, two vols (Paisley: J. & J. Cook, 1889-90).

Burmester                English books by and related to women (book catalogue issued by James Burmester Rare Books, catalogue 38, undated)

Cafarelli                    Cafarelli, Annette Wheeler, ‘The Romantic “Peasant” Poets and their Patrons’, The Wordsworth Circle, 26 (1995), 77-87.

Carpenter                 Carpenter, Andrew (ed), Verse in English from Eighteenth-Century Ireland (Cork: Cork University Press, 1998)

CBEL                          The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature, ed. by F.W. Bateson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), four volumes plus supplement (I-V)

CBEL3                        The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature: IV, 1800-1900, third edition, ed by Joanne Shattock (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Christmas                 Christmas, William J., The Lab’ring Muses: Work, Writing, and the Social Order in English Plebeian Poetry, 1730-1830 (Newark: University of Delaware Press and London: Associated University Presses, 2001).

COPAC                      Copyright library catalogue (online resource).

Copsey (2002)          Copsey, Tony, Suffolk Writers who were born between 1800-1900 (n.p., 2002)

Craik                          [Craik, G L], The Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties; illustrated by anecdotes (London: Charles Knight, 1830-1), two vols.

Cranbrook                Parnassian Molehill: An Anthology of Suffolk Verse, by The Earl of Cranbrook [1953], with a new preface by Ronald Blythe (Aldeburgh: The Aldeburgh Bookshop, 2001).

Crawford                  Crawford, Thomas, Love, Labour and Liberty: The Eighteenth-Century Scottish Lyric (Cheadle: Carcanet, 1976).

Cross                         Cross, Nigel, The Common Muse: Life in Nineteenth-Century Grub Street (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), esp. chapter 4: The Labouring Muse: Working-Class Writers and Middle-Class Culture, 126-63.

Crockett                    Crockett, W. S. (ed), Minstrelsy of the Merse: The Poets and Poetry of Berwickshire, a County Anthology (Paisley: J. and R. Parlane, 1893).

Crossan                    Crossan, Greg, ‘Clare’s Debt to the Poets in His Library’, John Clare Society Journal, 9 (1991), 27-41.

Curran                       Curran, Stuart, ‘Isabella Lickbarrow and Mary Bryan: Wordsworthian Poets’, The Wordsworth Circle, 27, no. 2 (1996), 113-28.

Davis and Joyce      Davis, Gwenn, and Beverley A. Joyce (compilers), Poetry by Women to 1900: A Bibliography of American and British Writers (Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1991).

DNB                            Dictionary of National Biography. (See also ODNB).

Dobell                        Dobell, Percy J. (compiler) A Catalogue of XVIIIth Century Verse and a Catalogue of Books by and Relating to Dr. Jonathan Swift (London: P.J. & A.E. Dobell, 1933), Catalogue no. 99.

Douglas                     Douglas, Sir George (ed), Poems of the Scottish Minor Poets, from the age of Ramsay to David Gray (London and New York: Walter Scott, [1891]), Canterbury Poets series.

Edwards                    Edwards, D. H. (ed) Modern Scottish Poets, with Biographical and Critical Notices (Brechin: Edwards, 1880-97), 16 volumes (note that vol. 1, the first series, has major pagination anomalies in its first 60 pages, affecting the accuracy of the contents page and the indexes to the series, esp. in vol. 16):

1          First Series, 1880

            2          Second Series, 1881

                                    3          Third Series, 1881

                                    4          Fourth Series, 1882

                                    5          Fifth Series, 1883

                                    6          Sixth Series, 1883

                                    7          Seventh Series, 1884

                                    8          Eighth Series, 1885

                                    9          Ninth Series, 1886

                                    10        Tenth Series, 1887

                                    11        Eleventh Series, 1888

                                    12        Twelfth Series, 1889

                                    13        Thirteenth Series, 1890

                                    14        Fourteenth Series, 1891

                                    15        Fifteenth Series, 1893

                                    16        Sixteenth Series, 1897

ESTC                          English Short Title Catalogue

Eyre-Todd                 George Eyre-Todd (ed), Scottish Poetry of the Eighteenth Century (Glasgow, 1896), 2 vols.

Foxon                         Foxon, David F., English verse 1701-1750: A Catalogue of Separately Printed Poems with Notes on Contemporary Collected Editions (London: Cambridge University Press, 1975), 2 volumes.

Fullard                       Fullard, Joyce (ed), British Women Poets 1660-1800: An Anthology (Troy, NY: The Whiston Publishing C, 1990).

Glasgow Poets           George Eyre-Todd (ed), The Glasgow Poets: Their Lives and Poems (Paisley: Alexander Gardner, 1906).

GM                             The Gentleman’s Magazine (founded 1731)

Goodridge (1989)     Goodridge, John, ‘Some Predecessors of Clare: “Honest Duck”’, John Clare Society Journal, 8 (1989), 5-10.

Goodridge (1990)     Goodridge, John, ‘Some Predecessors of Clare: 2, The Response to Duck’, John Clare Society Journal, 9 (1990), 17-26.

Goodridge (1999)     Goodridge, John, ‘Rowley’s Ghost: a Checklist of Creative Works Inspired by Thomas Chatterton’s Life and Writings’, in Thomas Chatterton and Romantic Culture, ed. by Nick Groom (London: Macmillan, 1999), 262-92.

Goodridge (2005)     Goodridge, John, ‘Some Rhetorical Strategies in Later Nineteenth-Century Laboring-Class Poetry’, Criticism, 47, no. 4 (Fall 2005), 531-47.

Harker (1999)           Harker, Dave, Songs of the North-East Pitmen (Gateshead: Surtees Society, 1999).

Harland                     Harland, John, Ballads and Songs of Lancashire (Part 2, Modern), corrected, revised and enlarged by T.T. Wilkinson (East Ardsley, Wakefield: EP Publishing limited, 1976), facsimile edition based on the third edition of 1882.

Harp R                        The Harp of Renfrewshire: A Collection of Songs and Other Poetical Pieces (Paisley: Alex Gardner, 1972), first pub. 1819.

Harp S                        William Harvey, The Harp of Stirlingshire (Paisley: J & R. Parlane, 1897)

Harper                       Harper, Malcolm McL., The Bards of Galloway: A Collection of Poems, Songs, Ballads., &c, by Natives of Galloway (Dalbeattie: Thomas Fraser, 1889).

Harvey                      Harvey, A.D., ‘Working-Class Poets and Self-Education’, Contemporary Review, May 1999.

Heinzelman              Heinzelman, Kurt, ‘The Uneducated Imagination: Romantic Representations of Labor’, in At the Limits of Romanticism: Essays in Cultural, Feminist, and Materialist Criticism, ed. by Mary A. Favret and Nicola J. Watson (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1994), 101-24.

Hepburn                    Hepburn, James, A Book of Scattered Leaves: Poetry of Poverty in Broadside Ballads of Nineteenth-Century England (Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2001), 2 vols.

Hewitt                        Hewitt, John (ed), Rhyming Weavers & other Country Poets of Antrim & County Down (Belfast: Blackstaff Press, 1974, 2004)

Hobday                     Hobday, Charles, ‘Two Sansculotte Poets: John Freeth and Joseph Mather’, in Writing and Radicalism, ed. by John Lucas (London and New York: Longman, 1996).

Hobsbawm &Scott  Hobsbawm, E.J. and Joan Wallace Scott, ‘Political Shoemakers’, Past and Present, 89 (1980), 86-114.

Hollingworth            Hollingworth, Brian (ed), Songs of the People: Lancashire Dialect Poetry of the Industrial Revolution (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1977).

Hold                           Hold, Trevor (ed), A Northamptonshire Garland (Northampton: Northamptonshire Libraries, 1989).

Hood                          Hood, Edwin Paxton, The Literature of Labour (1851), expanded and developed in The Peerage of Poverty (fifth edition and final form, 1870).

Howitt                        Howitt, William, Homes and Haunts of the Most Eminent English Poets (London and New York: George Routledge & Co, 1847, fourth edition, 1858).

Hull                             Hull, George (ed), Poets and Poetry of Blackburn (Blackburn, 1902).

Jackson (1985)          Jackson, J.R. de R., Annals of English Verse 1770-1835. A preliminary survey of the volumes published (New York & London: Garland Publishing, 1985).

Jackson (1993)          Jackson, J.R. de J., Romantic Poetry by Women, A Bibliography, 1770-1835 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993).

James                        James, Louis, Fiction for the Working Man 1830-1850 (London: Oxford University Press, 1963), Appendix I: Working-Class Poets and Poetry, 171-9. [Note: there are many small errors in this—names, titles, dates.]

James & McRae      James, Stuart and Gordon McCrae (ed), The Paisley Poets: A Critical Reappraisal of their Work and Reputation (Paisley: University of Paisley Library, 1993).

Janowitz                    Janowitz, Anne, Lyric and Labour in the Romantic Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Jarndyce                   The Romantics 1790-1850 (book catalogue issued by Jarndyce Antiquarian Booksellers, catalogue 124, Spring 1998).

JCSJ                           John Clare Society Journal

JCSN                          John Clare Society Newsletter

Johnson                     Johnson, C.R., Provincial Poetry 1789-1839: British Verse Printed in the Provinces: The Romantic Background (London: Jed Press, 1992).

Johnson 46                C.R. Johnson, Catalogue 46, catalogue of antiquarian books for sale issued by C.R. Johnson Rare Book Collections, 2003.

Keegan (2003)          Keegan, Bridget, ‘Snowstorms, shipwrecks and scorching heat: eighteenth-century labouring-class locodescriptive poetry’, Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, 10, no. 1 (Winter 2003), 75-96.

Keegan (2008)          Keegan, Bridget, British Labouring-Class Nature Poetry, 1730-1837 (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)

Klaus (1985)              Klaus, H. Gustav, The Literature of Labour: 200 Years of Working-Class Writing (Brighton: Harvester 1985), esp. Ch. 1: Plebeian poets in eighteenth-century England.

Klaus (1998)              Klaus, H. Gustav, Factory Girl: Ellen Johnstone and Working-Class Poetry in Victorian Scotland (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1998), Scottish Studies International, Volume 23.

Knox                           Knox, James (ed), Airdrie Bards, Past and Present (Airdrie: Baird & Hamilton, 1930), ‘Issued by the Airdrie Burns Club’.

Kovalev                     Kovalev, V., Anthology of Chartist Literature (Moscow, 1956).

Landry (1990)           Donna Landry, The Muses of Resistance: Laboring-class Women’s Poetry in Britain 1739-1796 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

Landry (2003)           Donna Landry, ‘The Labouring-Class Women Poets: Hard Labour we most chearfully pursue,’ in Sarah Prescott and David Shuttleton (eds.), Women and Poetry, 1660-1750 (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp. 223-43.

Leonard                    Leonard, Tom, Radical Renfrew: poetry from the French Revolution to the First World War by poets born or sometime resident in, the County of Renfrewshire (Edinburgh: Polygon, 1990).

LION                          Literature Online <>

Lonsdale (1984)       Lonsdale, Roger, The New Oxford Book of Eighteenth-Century Verse (Oxford and New York: Oxford University press, 1984).

Lonsdale (1989)       Lonsdale, Roger, Eighteenth-Century Women Poets (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, corrected softback edition, 1990).

Macdonald Shaw    Macdonald Shaw, Clare, ‘Some Contemporary Women Poets in Clare’s Library’, in John Goodridge (ed), The Independent Spirit: John Clare and the Self-Taught Tradition (Helpston: The John Clare Society, 1994), 87-122.

Macleod                    Macleod, Donald, Poets and Poetry of the Lennox (Dumbarton: Bennett & Thomson; Glasgow: Thomas Murray & Son, 1889)

Maidment (1983)     Maidment, Brian, ‘Essayists and Artizans: The Making of Nineteenth-Century Self-Taught poets’, Literature and History, 9, pt. 1 (1983), 74-91.

Maidment (1987)     Maidment, Brian (ed), The Poorhouse Fugitives: Self-Taught Poets and Poetry in Victorian Britain (Manchester: Carcanet, 1987).

MBP3                          Minor British Poets 1789-1918: Part Three: The Later Victorian Period 1870-1899 (Davis, California: The Library, University of California, Davis, 1986).

Miles                          Miles, Alfred H. (ed), The Poets and Poetry of the Nineteenth Century, ten volumes (1891 and various later editions).

Miller                         Miller, Frank, The Poets of Dumfriesshire (Glasgow: James Maclehose & Son, 1910)

Milne (1999)              Milne, Anne, ‘“Lactilla Tends Her Fav’rite Cow”: Domesticated Animals and Women in Eighteenth-Century British Labouring-Class Women’s Poetry’, PhD Dissertation, McMaster University, 1999.

Milne (2001)              Milne, Anne, ‘Gender, Class, and the Beehive: Mary Collier’s “The Woman’s Labour” (1739) as Nature Poem’, Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and the Environment, 8, no. 2 (Summer 2001), 111-29.

Murdoch                   Murdoch, Alexander G. (ed), The Scottish Poets Recent and Living (Glasgow and London, 1883).

Murray                      Murray, Norman, The Scottish Handloom Weavers 1790-1850: A Social History. Edinburgh: John Donald, 1978.

NCBEL                       The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature

NCSTC                      Nineteenth-Century Short-title Catalogue

NLS                            National Library of Scotland

NRA                           National Register of Archives. This indicates that a search of the NRA web page has shown an archival holding. The relevant location is usually indicated in brackets.

NTU                            Nottingham Trent University, Libraries and Learning Resources, Special Collections, The Raymond Williams Collection: Labouring Class Poetry. A full online catalogue of this collection is available online.

Philips                        Phillips, Bill, ‘The Silence of the Shepherds: The Fate of Peasant Poets in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries’, in Rosa Gonzalez (ed) Culture and Power: Institutions (Barcelona, 1996), 211-20.

ODNB                         Oxford Dictionary of Nastional Biography (2004), online edition.

Poole                          Poole, Charles Henry (ed), Warwickshire Poets (London: N. Ling & Co, 1914), Poets of the Shires series.

Poole & Markland   Poole, Charles Henry and Russell Markland (eds), Staffordshire Poets (Lytham: N. Ling & Co, 1928), Poets of the Shires series.

Powell                        [Powell, David], ‘Clare’s Library’, in his Catalogue of the John Clare Collection in the Northampton Public Library (Northampton: County Borough of Northampton, 1964), 23-34 (items numbered 88-409).

Radcliffe                    Radcliffe, David Hill (ed), Spenser and the Tradition: English Poetry, 1759-1830, major scholarly database and corpus of texts, available online at

Reid                            Reid, Alan, The Bards of Angus and the Mearns: An Anthology of the Counties (Paisley: J. & R. Parlane, 1897).

Reilly (1994)              Reilly, Catherine W., Late Victorian poetry, 1880-1899: an annotated biobibliography (London and New York: Mansell, 1994).

Reilly (2000)              Reilly, Catherine W., Mid-Victorian poetry, 1860-1879: an annotated biobibliography (London: Mansell, 2000).

Richardson               Richardson, Alan, Literature, Education, and Romanticism: Reading as Social Practice, 1780-1832 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

Ricks                          Ricks, Christopher (ed), The New Oxford Book of Victorian Verse (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).

Rizzo                          Rizzo, Betty, ‘The Patron as Poet Maker: The Politics of Benefaction’, Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture, 20 (1990), 241-66.

RLF                             Cross, Nigel, The Royal Literary Fund 1790-1918: An Introduction to the Fund’s History and archives with an index of applicants (London: World Microfilm Publications, 1984) [references to the index are given in the form ‘RLF no. xxx’]

Ross                           Ross, John D., Scottish Poets in America, with Biographical and Critical Notices (New York: Pagan and Ross, 1889)

Røstvig                      Røstvig, Maren-Sofie, The Happy Man: Studies in the Metamorphoses of a Classical Ideal, second edition (Oslo and New York, 1971).

Rowton                      Rowton, Frederick, The Female Poets of Great Britain Chronologically Arranged with Copious Selections and Critical Remarks [1853], facsimile edition, with an Introduction by Marilyn L. Williamson (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1981).

Sales (1994)              Roger Sales, ‘Poor Relations: Writing in the Working Class 1770-1835, in The Penguin History of Literature: The Romantic Period, ed. David B. Pirie (London: Penguin, 1994), pp. 259-88.

Sambrook                 Sambrook, James, ‘Some Heirs of Goldsmith: Poets of the Poor in the Late Eighteenth Century’, Studies in Burke and His Time 11 (1970), 1348-61.

Scheckner                 Scheckner, Peter (ed), An Anthology of Chartist Poetry: Poetry of the British Working Class, 1830s-1850s (London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1989).

Shattock (1999)        Shattock, Joanne, ed., The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature (Vol.4) 1800-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Shiach                        Shiach, Morag, Discourse on Popular Culture: Class, Gender and History in Cultural Analysis, 1730 to the Present (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989).

Southey                     Southey, Robert, The Lives and Works of Our Uneducated Poets, ed. by J.S. Childers (London: Oxford University Press, 1925). First pub. as Attempts in Verse, by John Jones, an Old Servant; with Some account of the Writer, Written by Himself; and an Introductory Essay on the Lives and Works of Uneducated Poets, by Robert Southey, Esq., Poet Laureate (London, 1831).

Sparke                       Sparke, Archibald, Bibliographia Boltoniensis (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1913).

Sutton                        Sutton, David C. (ed), Location Register of English Literary Manuscripts and Letters: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (London: The British Library, 1995).

Taylor                        Geoffrey Taylor (ed), Irish Poets of the Nineteenth Century (London: Routledge, Kegan & Paul, 1951), Muses Library series.

Tinker                        Tinker, Chauncey Brewster, Nature’s Simple Plan: A Phase of Radical Thought in the Mid-Eighteenth Century (Princeton and London: Princeton University Press and Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, 1922).

Todd (1987)               Janet Todd (ed), A Dictionary of British and American Women Writers 1660-1800 (London: Methuen, 1987; New Jersey: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987).

Turner                        Turner, J. Horsfall, Halifax Books and Authors, (Brighouse: the ‘News’ Office, 1906).

Tytler                         Tytler, Sarah and J. L. Watson, The Songstresses of Scotland (London: Strahan & Co, 1871), 2 vols.

Unwin                        Unwin, Rayner, The Rural Muse: Studies in the Peasant Poetry of England (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1954).

Vicinus (1969)           Vicinus, Martha, ‘The Lowly Harp: A Study of Nineteenth-Century Working-Class Poetry’, PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1969.

Vicinus (1970)           Vicinus, Martha, ‘The Study of 19th-Century British Working-Class Poetry’, in The Politics of Literature: Dissenting Essays on the Teaching of English, ed. by Louis Kampf and Paul Lauter (New York: Random House, 1970), 322-53.

Vicinus (1973)           Vicinus, Martha, ‘Literary Voices of an Industrial Town: Manchester, 1810-70’, in The Victorian City: Images and Realities, ed. by H.J. Dyos and Michael Wolff (London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973), 739-61.

Vicinus (1974)           Vicinus, Martha, The Industrial Muse: Nineteenth-Century British Working-Class Literature (Croom Helm, 1974); developed from Vicinus (1969), with substantive changes.

Vincent                      Vincent, David, Bread, Knowledge and Freedom: A Study of Nineteenth-Century Working Class Autobiography (London and New York: Methuen, 1981).

Walker                       Walker, William, The Bards of Bon-Accord, 1375-1860 (Aberdeen: J & J.P. Edmond & Spark, 1887).

wcwp                          Factory Girls and Serving Maids: Victorian Working-Class Women Poets Archive (online database)

Welford                     Welford, Richard, Men of Mark ’Twixt Tyne and Tweed, three volumes (London: Walter Scott, 1895).

Williams                    Williams, John, ‘Displacing Romanticism: Anna Seward, Joseph Weston and the Unschooled Sons of Genius’, in Placing and Displacing Romanticism, ed. by Peter J. Kitson (London: Ashgate, 2001), 48-59.

Wilson                       Wilson, James Grant (ed), The Poems and Poetry of Scotland from the Earliest to the Present Times, (London, Glasgow and Edinburgh, 1876), two volumes.

Winks                        Winks, William Edward, Lives of Illustrious Shoemakers (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1883)

Worrall                      Worrall, David, Radical Culture: Discourse, Resistance and Surveillance, 1790-1820 (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1992)

Wright                       Wright, W. H. Kearsley, West Country Poets: Their Lives and Works (London, 1896).

Zlotnick                     Zlotnick, Susan, Woman, Writing and the Industrial Revolution (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998).